You had male Emperors and female Empresses, but these five women shattered the patriarchy of their time

History has mostly been a man’s game.

It’s even suggested as much by the term: his-story.

While there have been many Queens and Empresses in history —who held the throne in their own right rather than simply as a consort or regent; they have typically been seen as less powerful than their male counterparts.

Even that mighty English Queen — Elizabeth I deigned to never marry as the responsibility of political decisions would have been given to her husband.

There are five women however who broke convention and ruled their countries as legitimate imperial rulers who wielded absolute power.

#5: Wu Zetian — Emperor of China

Credit: Wikimedia commons


One’s journey in life should involve not just living it from day to day, but also reflecting upon it. To take stock; celebrate the highlights, and learn from the lows.

With this week marking my second year writing on Medium; I thought I’d continue the tradition by sharing my thoughts of my journey here.

I mean, companies publish annual reports — why can’t I?

With that in mind, below are my key observations and takeaways from the year just gone.

  1. I published 30 articles — bringing my total to 85. After a relatively gruelling schedule of publishing articles in my…

The story of how my ancestor helped bring suffrage to minorities and ensure Kerala joined India - but paid the ultimate price

Mittai-appachan AKA K.C Eapen

In family lore, he is referred to as Mittai-appachan. Mittai means “sweets” in many Indian languages; and “appachan” is a term loosely meaning grandfather.

Legend holds that when driving his car to the capital for work — he would frequently stop along the way to handout toffees and other sweets to children he saw along the way, hence his monicker.

But this is not the story of the Mittai-appachan the family man. It is the story of K.C Eapen (his legal name), the Indian freedom fighter.

Origins of the Bank

At the turn of the 20th Century — the financial system in India was…

Life goes on; even after you’ve abdicated the throne. Here’s how these five rulers spent the rest of their lives

There is a heavy burden in being a sovereign. You are responsible for continuing the dynasty first set up by your more famous ancestors, while the eyes of your entire country and other world leaders judge your every action.

Sometimes, however — fate has a very different path in store for you than the one envisioned for you by your forefathers.

Below we look at five rulers who ended the monarchy with their abdication; and how they lived out the rest of their days after leaving the palace.

#5: Mukarram Jah — Last Nizam of Hyderabad

Of the ~560 princely states which joined India, Hyderabad was the wealthiest

Life is too short for organics to be roaming the universe

The Universe is a big place.

With billions of galaxies each filled with further billions of planets — it is certain that there are other forms of life out there.

Though we have been searching for extraterrestrial life for many decades, that will only really result in detecting them and possibly communicating with them.

Actually meeting an alien is a very different thing altogether.

Any alien we meet in the flesh is likely to be made of anything but. They will almost certainly be some sort of artificial lifeform.

It is logical when you consider the following:

#1: Natural Lifespan

Any biological species…

Cancel culture helps bring the elites to account but with great power, comes great responsibility

Credit: Taylor Callery via TIME

The term Cancel Culture is trending all over the airwaves and social media feeds these days.

Some people a vehemently against it, many are for it, with still others questioning if it even exists.

But what exactly is it, and is it good or bad? Let’s look at these questions and more below.

What Is Cancel Culture?

Cancelling someone or something is the act of de-platforming or otherwise gagging them — thereby restricting the spread of their ideas or legitimisation of their behaviour.

At one end of the spectrum, it can simply be censuring them (by their employers, sponsors and other associates). …

It turns out these nations have a lot more value than most people realise

If you are a regular reader of world news — you’ll often see articles about United States, China, Australia, as well as other great and middle powers lavishing inordinate amounts of attention and money upon tiny island nations.

At first, it seems odd because these countries could easily use these funds to benefit their own people domestically.

Why should one country’s taxes go toward investing in completely foreign ones?

Why would China with the world’s largest population, the second-largest economy, and third largest land area bother spending millions on somewhere like Kiribati which is an island nation somewhere in the…

The 60s had peace and free-love; 70s had disco, the 80s had spandex, but what defined the 90s?

Credit: Thoughtco

Think of the 70s and you’ll probably think immediately of flairs; disco and The Godfather Movies.

Imagine the 80s and you’ll no doubt conjure up images of Star Wars, Michael Jackson and Madonna’s chart-dominating tunes (no doubt listened to on a walkman), and everyone clad in either spandex or acid-washed jeans.

But what about the 90s? They ended nearly a generation ago and we still haven’t got a clear view of what typified the decade.

Well, dear reader — now is that time. Let’s have a go at defining the 90s generation:


This decade saw CGI heavy blockbuster films like…

As age reversal sciences approach major breakthroughs; we need to start planning for how to live in a world of immortals

“Nothing is certain, except for death and taxes” goes the famous quip.

Although — technically, there are quite a few countries (including several in the Middle East) where taxes aren’t really a thing.

Death, however, has been the great leveller from time immemorial. It ravages all — from the mightiest kings to the lowliest peasants.

That might not be the case going forward, however. An increasing number of scientists envision the human lifespan becoming indefinite; with some going so far as to say key breakthroughs for this are just a couple of decades away.

Now it is all very well…

Before the end — there came the beginning of the end

History is littered with dates.

Start dates and end dates. Of people…and of Empires.

History is rarely so clean-cut though. In most cases — before the final flame on an empire was extinguished, it would have been terminally ill for a long time.

Below we consider when it was that 5 of history’s great empires crossed their Rubicon — after which point there was no way their fortunes could be turned around.

#5: Spanish Empire: 1808AD— Napoleon’s coup of the Spanish throne

Kesh Anand

An observer of history, human development, geopolitics, society, and the future

Get the Medium app

A button that says 'Download on the App Store', and if clicked it will lead you to the iOS App store
A button that says 'Get it on, Google Play', and if clicked it will lead you to the Google Play store